November 21, 2008

Geoff Dyer: The Missing of the Somme

Posted in Dyer Geoff at 8:00 am by John Self

It was the 90th anniversary of Armistice recently which led me to revisit Geoff Dyer’s The Missing of the Somme. But he was already on my mind as I had discovered that he will soon publish his first novel in a decade. His novels are perhaps the least of him, or their punning titles are anyway: his last was Paris Trance [1998] and his next is Jeff in Venice, Death in Varanasi (2009). It’s in non-fiction where he excels: the compendium of essays Anglo-English Attitudes; the study of photography The Ongoing Moment; his brilliant account of almost failing to write a book about D.H. Lawrence, Out of Sheer Rage. A disciple of Berger and admirer of Bernhard, Dyer is nonetheless capable of shameless silliness in a way which still manages to be charming, as in his award-winning (well, a WHSmith award. But they all count) travelogue-cum-’memoir’, Yoga for People Who Can’t Be Bothered to Do It. In that book he tells us, and it might apply to any of them: “Everything in this book really happened, but some of the things that happened only happened in my head.”

The Missing of the Somme (1994) came about because

like the youthful Christopher Isherwood who wanted to write a novel entitled ‘A War Memorial’, I wanted to write a book that was not about ‘the War itself but the effect of the idea of [the War] on my generation’. Not a novel but an essay in mediation: research notes for a Great War novel I had no intention of writing, the themes of a novel without its substance…

This is typical Dyer self-deprecation. This is a substantial book despite its page count. Everything has been thoroughly considered, down to his reasons for sticking to ‘the Great War’ rather than the coldly associative ‘First World War’ or (even worse) ‘World War I’. “Was there not, amidst all this grief, a faint shudder or shiver of excitement at the unimaginable vastness of it all? … Was there not a faint glow of pride, an unavoidable undertow of semantic approval, in terming the war ‘Great’?”

That ‘vastness’ is backed up by the figures. “In total 918 cemeteries were built on the Western Front with 580,000 named and 180,000 unidentified graves.” “By the time of the great battles of attrition in 1916-17, mass graves were dug in advance of major offensives.” “France and Germany each lost more than a million and a half men; Russia, two million. Three-quarters of a million of the dead were British.” “If the Empire’s dead marched four abreast down Whitehall, it would take them three and a half days to pass the Cenotaph.” We could read these numbers all day and never get closer, even almost a century on, to comprehending the scale of the deaths. Dyer’s method then is to deal primarily with the act of remembrance of the war rather than the war itself.

The war paralysed not only a generation and a decade, but bled back to infect the past.

Life in the decade and a half preceding 1914 has come to be viewed inevitably and unavoidably through the optic of the war that followed it. The past as past was preserved by the war that shattered it. By ushering in a future characterized by instability and uncertainty, it embalmed forever a past characterized by stability and certainty.

Aspects of memories of the war are preserved in statues, cemeteries and photographs. “Every family has an album like this. Even as we prepare to open it, the act of looking at the album is overlaid by the emotions it will engender. We look at the pictures as if reading a poem about the experience of seeing them.” Dyer’s liberal use of photographs through the text brings to mind W.G. Sebald, and it’s in his discursive manner too, the ‘narrative’ which looks meandering or random but in fact is highly wrought and tightly structured.

Dyer records the use of statues of unknown soldiers (“they are all over the country, these Tommies”) and how, “rotted by pollution, powerless to protect themselves, their only defence, like that of the blind, is our respect.”

The most common form of sculpture – a soldier, head bowed, leaning on his downward-pointed rifle – actually represents the self-contained ideal of remembrance: the soldier being remembered and the soldier remembering. Sculptures like this appeal to – and are about – the act of remembrance itself: a depiction of the ideal form of the emotion which looking at them elicits.

Similarly, “at the Cenotaph it is the act of remembering together that is being remembered.”

My usual method when reading a book is to mark the page margins with a pencil at a notable passage. Here there were so many – barely a page unmarked – that the best way of reviewing the book would be simply to type it all out again. In a sense this is what Dyer has done. The Missing of the Somme is peppered with material from other texts – the notes cite some 300 quotations and sources in a 130-page book – but it is Dyer’s triumph to bring all the elements together in an elegiac whole. This also provides a handy source of other books I now need to read, such as Henri Barbusse’s 1916 novel Under Fire, which exemplifies one of Dyer’s central ideas. Here, French troops discuss the bombardments they are enduring in the trenches.

‘It’ll be no good telling about it, eh? They wouldn’t believe you; not out of malice or through liking to pull your leg, but because they couldn’t … No one can know. Only us.’

‘No, not even us, not even us!’ someone cried.

‘That’s what I say too. We shall forget – we’re forgetting already, my boy!’

‘We’ve seen too much to remember.’

‘And everything we’ve seen was too much. We’re not made to hold it all. It takes its bloody hook in all directions. We’re too little to hold it.’

The key here is that the war was, in certain respects, being remembered even before it was fought. When Siegfried Sassoon suggested that Wilfred Owen change ‘Dead’ in the title of his poem from ‘Anthem for Dead Youth’ to ‘Doomed’, it became a memorial “to those who are going to have died.” Similarly, I was surprised to learn that Laurence Binyon’s famous ‘For the Fallen’ -

They shall not grow old, as we that are left grow old:
Age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn.
At the going down of the sun and in the morning
We will remember them

- was written in September 1914: “before the fallen actually fell.”

‘For the Fallen’, in other words, is not a work of remembrance but of anticipation, or more accurately, the anticipation of remembrance: a foreseeing that is also a determining. … We will remember them.

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18 Comments »

  1. kimbofo said,

    Brilliant… thanks for this. My (Australian-based) father is a Great War obsessive and an avid reader, so now I’ve got his Christmas present sorted now thanks to you! By the sounds of things, I should buy two copies — one for him, one for me.

    The scale of the war — or, more accurately, the number of deaths — is almost impossible to comprehend, isn’t it? More than 61,000 Australian soldiers died on foreign soil during the conflict and tens of thousands were injured — given the male population of the country at the time was less than 3 million that’s quite a devastating impact. (I believe almost 400 000 of them volunteered to fight in the war.)

  2. Having recently finished Sebastian Barry’s ‘A Long Long Way’ you couldn’t have timed this review any better John. I didn’t really click with Dyer’s ‘Yoga…’, but really enjoyed ‘Out of Sheer Rage’ and as a keen photographer ‘The Ongoing Moment’ has been on my to-read list for a while (have you read it?). I shall have to add this book now too won’t I.

  3. workingwords100 said,

    I haven’t read much info about Armistice Day on this side of the world.
    About the only time that I read about WWI is when another of the few remaining veterans die. Not good.

    I will have to look for this work. Thanks for the reviews.

  4. John Self said,

    Which side of the world are you on, workingwords?

    William, I have read The Ongoing Moment but it’s not my favourite of Dyer’s. I hope you like The Missing of the Somme if you do read it – and kimbofo, you and your father too!

  5. John Verity said,

    Wonderful to find another fan of Geoff Dyer’s work. I read, and much enjoyed, his Somme book and highly recommend it. As another “keen photographer” (serious amateur for 40-odd years, and still struggling to get fully embrace digital) I greatly enjoyed The Ongoing Moment; Dyer has really seen something others have missed, and his approach as a serious amateur willing to plunge into highly-refined subjects is great fun to observe. The results are masterful. I am not exaggerating when I say that I could not put down the photo book. As someone who was familiar with much of the work he discusses, I was mesmerized. No kidding.

  6. John Self said,

    Thanks for sharing your thoughts John. I will have to revisit The Ongoing Moment – I’m a sometime keen photographer myself, but one who has been introduced to it only with the advent of digital. I also wasn’t familiar with any (or hardly any) of the photographs he discusses: though the best way around that, I guess, is to read the book again.

  7. JRSM said,

    I was reminded by this excellent review that I’ve had Barbusse’s ‘Under Fire’ for several years, but never read it, so I’ve been correcting that now. It’s a great, grim book: it starts off (relatively) gently, but by the end of it you’re deep in a very real hell. Startling stuff, and I frankly don’t know how he got away with publishing it when he did (1916), as anyone reading it would surely have questioned the point of keeping on fighting. Even worse for Barbusse is that, despite the extent of the horrors he described, there would still be nearly three more years of them to come.

    Now must read Dyer’s book: I loved ‘Out of Sheer Rage’, ‘Yoga…’ and ‘The Colour of Memory’.

  8. John Self said,

    Great stuff JRSM, I must look out Under Fire very soon, along with a second world war book highlighted on your blog today: Tournier’s The Ogre.

  9. [...] (He might be speaking of Geoff Dyer’s meditation on national memory, The Missing of the Somme.) [...]

  10. [...] inspired by topical events. After Barack Obama’s The Audacity of Hope and Geoff Dyer’s The Missing of the Somme, I was reminded recently that today is World Aids Day, which seemed a good opportunity to complete [...]

  11. [...] months ago, I had not even heard of Dyer — an enthusiastic review by John Self on Asylum of The Missing of the Somme convinced me that this was an author I needed to read.  That book, incidentally, shows as sold [...]

  12. Sam said,

    Dyer in the Indy.

    Anyone who has an eye on the market is not a writer but a whore. Nothing wrong with being a whore, of course – just don’t try to make out you’re a writer. Writers sometimes talk of pressure from their publishers to do this or that in order to be more commercial. Nine times out of ten this is sophistry and cowardice… I have this existential conception of writing not as a career but as a back-against-the wall option, the thing you turn to when you’ve got no other way of making a mark on the world. In those circumstances, whether or not you’re going to be adequately recompensed is irrelevant.

    Link

    What a twat.

  13. [...] about D.H. Lawrence (Out of Sheer Rage), a book about public memorialising of the First World War (The Missing of the Somme), and a travel book where “everything in this book happened, but some of the things that [...]

  14. [...] Trance by Geoff Dyer I was introduced tothe work of Geoff Dyer by Kevin From Canada and John Self at The Asylum. Kevin From Canada reviewed this particular book. While Jeff in Venice, [...]

  15. [...] Dyer, The Missing of the Somme : “a substantial book despite its page count … the ‘narrative’ looks meandering or [...]

  16. leroyhunter said,

    I finished Manning’s Her Privates We (also quoted by Dyer) last week and decided it was an apt lead into this. I thought it was very good, there are so many ideas mentioned / discussed / teased out over such a short number of pages. Even the larky, boyish bits (“Wrong war, mate”) work.

    The point he makes about the agreed, formalised structure and timetable of rememberance of the Great War is very striking. Almost like people were being diverted away from other questions or thoughts by the need to actively, solemnly “remember”. His use and discussion of photos really draws me to The Ongoing Moment.

    Did you ever get to Barbusse, John? It’s strong stuff, as mentioned above. I’d also really recommend Manning’s book, though it’s not one for anyone needing a little mood-lifter. More sombre then Under Fire, but totally absorbing.

  17. [...] is recurrence in these essays of thoughts previously given form in The Missing of the Somme, of photographs as memorials. Ruth Orkins’ ‘VE Day’ shows a crowd in Times Square [...]

  18. […] Dyer, The Missing of the Somme : “a substantial book despite its page count … the ‘narrative’ looks meandering or random […]


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